Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social communication and interaction, as well as repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. It is a condition that affects individuals from early childhood and continues throughout their lifetime. We also have a more general article on learning difficulties.

The exact causes of ASD are not yet fully understood, but research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its development. Studies have shown that mutations or changes in certain genes can increase the risk of developing ASD. Additionally, exposure to certain environmental factors, such as prenatal exposure to chemicals, may also play a role.

ASD can present with a range of symptoms, which can vary in severity and presentation. Common symptoms include delayed language development, difficulty with social interactions, repetitive movements or behaviors, sensory sensitivities, and difficulty with changes in routine or environment. However, it is important to note that each individual with ASD is unique, and their symptoms can vary widely.

Early identification and intervention are critical in improving outcomes for individuals with ASD. Diagnosis is typically made through a comprehensive evaluation, which may include assessments of communication, behavior, and cognitive abilities. Treatment options can include behavioral therapy, speech and language therapy, and medication to address related symptoms such as anxiety or sleep disturbances.

Research into ASD is ongoing, and there is still much to be learned about this complex disorder. However, advances in understanding its causes and treatments continue to improve outcomes for individuals with ASD and their families.

Are There Different Forms of Autism?

Autism is described as a spectrum. This means that it can affect people by different amounts. Below is a table of the different forms of autism, along with a brief description and some of their symptoms:

Name of AutismDescription and Symptoms
Classic AutismAlso known as Kanner’s autism, is a severe form of autism that is typically characterized by a lack of communication skills and social interaction.
Asperger’sA mild form of autism in which the individual may have normal or high intelligence, but may struggle with social interactions and communication.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)A term that was once used to describe a group of disorders that were considered to be on the autism spectrum, including Asperger’s and classic autism.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)A range of developmental disorders that can include autism. Symptoms can vary widely, but can include delays in communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and sensory sensitivities.

It’s important to note that the diagnostic criteria for autism have changed over time, and some of these terms may no longer be used or may be used differently depending on the diagnostic system being used. Additionally, it’s important to remember that each individual with autism is unique, and may have a different set of symptoms or challenges.

Is It Possible to Diagnose Autism at Home?

It is not possible to diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at home. A formal assessment and diagnosis by a trained professional, such as a pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or neuropsychologist, is necessary for an accurate diagnosis. Autism is a spectrum disorder, and it affects each individual differently. A comprehensive evaluation is required to make an accurate diagnosis, which typically involves an examination of social communication, behavior, developmental history, cognitive and language skills. Delaying or avoiding a formal evaluation can result in missed opportunities for support and treatment, and seeking professional help as early as possible is important for long-term outcomes.

If you have an opinion it is necessary to contact the school as soon as possible as they will be able to be able to set up the formal assessment that might be necessary.

What if I Disagree With the School or It Is Not Moving Fast Enough?

If you disagree with the school or feel that they are not moving fast enough to support your child with autism, there are a few steps you can take:

  • Communicate your concerns: Schedule a meeting with your child’s teacher or the school’s special education team to discuss your concerns. Be specific about your child’s needs and ask for updates on their progress. Keep a record of your communications and follow up in writing to ensure that your concerns are documented.
  • Seek an independent evaluation: If you feel that the school’s evaluation is insufficient or incomplete, you can seek an independent evaluation from a qualified professional. This can provide additional information to help guide your child’s educational plan.
  • Request a due process hearing: If you and the school cannot come to an agreement on your child’s educational plan, you have the right to request a due process hearing. This is a legal process that involves an impartial hearing officer who will listen to both sides and make a decision on the appropriate educational plan for your child.
  • Consider legal representation: If you feel that your child’s rights are not being met or that the school is not fulfilling its obligations, you may want to consider seeking legal representation. An attorney who specializes in education law can help you understand your options and advocate for your child’s needs.

It’s important to remember that the process of advocating for your child with autism can be challenging and time-consuming. However, by working closely with the school and seeking support from qualified professionals, you can help ensure that your child receives the best possible education and support. Conflict should be a last resort as often the reason for the slow movement is resources, either in the school, or national organisations.

What Are the Best Ways to Support a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Supporting a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can involve a range of strategies that can be tailored to the specific needs and strengths of the child. Here are some of the best ways to support a child with ASD:

  • Early intervention: Early intervention services can help identify ASD early and provide support for the child’s developmental needs. It’s important to seek an evaluation if you suspect your child may have ASD.
  • Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): ABA is a therapy that can help children with ASD learn social, communication, and behavioral skills. It is the most widely recognized and researched therapy for autism.
  • Speech therapy: Many children with ASD have difficulties with communication and language, and speech therapy can help them develop these skills.
  • Occupational therapy: Occupational therapy can help children with ASD improve their motor skills, sensory processing, and self-help skills.
  • Sensory accommodations: Many children with ASD have sensory sensitivities or needs, and providing accommodations such as sensory-friendly environments, noise-cancelling headphones, or weighted blankets can help them feel more comfortable and regulated.
  • Individualized Education Program (IEP): An IEP is a plan that outlines educational goals and supports for the child, based on their individual needs and strengths. It’s important to work with your child’s school to develop an appropriate plan.
  • Social support: Many children with ASD have difficulties with social interaction, and providing opportunities for socialization and peer support can help them develop these skills.
  • Parent education and support: It can be challenging to support a child with ASD, and seeking education and support for parents can help them better understand their child’s needs and how to provide effective support.

Overall, supporting a child with ASD involves understanding their unique strengths and challenges, and providing a range of strategies and supports that can help them thrive. It’s important to work closely with professionals, such as therapists and educators, and to seek support from others who have experience with ASD.

Final Thoughts on Autism Spectrum Disorder

As said at the beginning autism is a collective term for many things. It means that no one article can cover everything you need to know. Below are some links to help with more information:


  1. Autism Speaks –
  2. Autism Society –
  3. National Autism Association –
  4. Autism Science Foundation –


  1. National Autistic Society –
  2. Autism Research Trust –
  3. Scottish Autism –
  4. Autism Initiatives –


  1. Autism Awareness Australia –
  2. Aspect –
  3. Autism Spectrum Australia –
  4. Autism CRC –


  1. Autism Society Canada –
  2. Autism Canada Foundation –
  3. Geneva Centre for Autism –
  4. Autism Speaks Canada –

Note: This is not an exhaustive list and there may be other organizations that provide support for autism in these countries.